.Title: [Freedmen's school, Edisto Island, S.C.] / Samuel A. Cooley, photographer, Savannah, Ga., Hilton Head, S.C., Beaufort, S.C. [between 1862 and 1865]
This freedmen's school on Edisto Island, S.C. was one of several established for former slaves living on land granted for their settlement by General Sherman's Special Field Orders No. 15. Most of the freedmen's schools were run by teachers from the North, usually women, with the support of various benevolent societies and the cooperation of the Freedmen's Bureau. Mary Ames was one of the northern teachers on Edisto Island and recorded her experiences in From a New England woman's diary in Dixie in 1865, published in 1906. In her diary, Ames describes the poor standard of living on the island and the difficulties of conducting school under such conditions, the great desire of the freedpeople to learn, and the betrayal they felt at the forced restoration of the plantations to their former owners.
Louis Hughes was born into slavery in Virginia and sold as a child. He would eventually be sold to a wealthy Mississippi family and moved south. The family first lived in Memphis. After the Confederate loses at Fort Pillow and Fort Donelson, the family moved south with their slaves into Mississippi and Alabama to escape Union troops. Hughes worked primarily as a house slave but also writes about the larger day-to-day routines and workings of the plantation. In this autobiography, Hughes describes his five attempts to run away and the consequences of his multiple attempts to secure his freedom. In his fifth attempt to gain his freedom detailed in "My Fifth Strike for Freedom is a Success” (p. 172-177), Hughes escapes to Memphis where he finds a the city greatly changed at the end of the war.
Title:Panorama of the Mississippi Valley : and its fortifications / [1863?, detail]
Taken from a map depicting the Mississippi River as it flows from the Gulf of Mexico to St. Louis, Missouri, this detail focuses on the river as it forms the western boundary of the state of Tennessee. The Civil War had an extraordinary impact on mapmaking in the United States, as invading armies needed to know the natural and manmade features of the landscapes they encountered. As one of the most fought-over states of the Confederacy, Tennessee's landscapes and cities were reproduced in numerous printed and hand-drawn maps by Union cartographers at the request of Union generals.
This overall map breaks the river into four sections, and displays the sections side-by-side in order to create a map of a manageable size and shape. If placed end-to-end (as the river is in actuality), the map would be almost 7 feet 9 inches long and only about 6 inches wide!
This unidentified woman holding a photograph of Private William Raleigh Clack may be his wife, Sabria Caroline Newport Clack, or another relative. Private Clack's regiment, the 43rd Tennessee, was organized in Knoxville and included men from several East Tennessee counties. During the Civil War, women had to take on new responsibilities at home when their male relatives went to the battle front. To stay connected, women wrote letters and sent care packages (including photographs) to their relatives and friends at the front. Because reliable information was difficult to get during the war, women also spent a lot of time trying to find out what was happening to their loved ones. Private Clack survived the war and lived until 1919.