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Fermentation Science: Wine

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Wine: fermented juice from grapes (varieties of Vitis vinifera). Red wines are made by fermenting the juice together with the skins at 21–29 °C; white wines normally from white grapes by fermenting the juice alone at 15–17 °C; rosé by removing the skins after 12–36 hours, or by mixing red and white wines.

Beverages made by fermenting other fruit juices and sugar in the presence of vegetables, leaves, or roots are also called wines (elderberry, elderflower, parsnip, peapod, rhubarb, etc.), although the legal definition may be restricted to the fermented grape. See also alcoholic beverages.

White wines are graded as dry (0.6% sugars) to sweet (6% sugars), on a scale of 1 to 9. Red wines are graded from A (light and dry) to E (full-bodied and heavy). Wines generally contain 9–14% alcohol, dry wines 70 kcal (290 kJ), sweet wines 120 kcal (500 kJ), and about 1 mg of iron per 100 mL; there are only traces of vitamins.

(Source: Oxford Reference)